Will the Jews have a second chance?
Iím not sure I understand your question about whether the Jews will have a second chance. A second chance at what? At what did the Jews fail the first chance that they would need a second chance?
At salvation? That is an individual rather than a national thing. A person might hear Godís word, reject it, and die shortly thereafter. Or they might get a second chance to obey. I prefer to believe that God knows whether they would change their mind, and chooses to give them that second chance, although the Bible does not state this clearly.
A second chance to produce a savior who would die as a sacrifice for sin? They were pretty successful in fulfilling Godís plan the first time. The writer of Hebrews is pretty clear that we donít need another sacrifice. ďAnd as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment, So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many.Ē (Hebrews 9:7-8) He doesnít need to be sacrificed again.
A second chance to be Godís chosen people? They were successfully Godís chosen people when he only chose one nation through whom to bring the Messiah. God no longer chooses one nation as his people, but ďI saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people.Ē (Revelation 14:6)
Paul does argue in Romans 8-10 that the Jews were ďdiminishedĒ so that the gentiles (non-Jews) could be saved. But he argues in chapter 11 that the Jews will regain some prominence through faith in God. Even today we are seeing an increase in Jews who openly profess belief in Jesus as the Messiah.
So, if the Jews need a second chance in anything, Paul argues that they will have that second chance. But even so it will be primarily on an individual rather than national level.